Noise from high speed trains has been a highly contentious issue around the world for high speed rail systems. Excess noise in general has been linked to stress, mental health, outdoor physical activity, hearing impairment/loss, sleep disturbances, cardiovascular disease (hypertension, myocardial infarction, etc.), and impairment of speech, communication, learning and educational performance.
Improved technologies have succeeded in reducing some noise emissions from high-speed trains, but persistent noise means that control efforts need to focus on reducing exposure. Effective control measures include separating residential areas from the HSR alignment, routing the HSR underground or behind sound berms, orienting the windows of new buildings away from the HSR and installing sound insulation.